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Hardwood thinnings remove the culls

Less than 20% of privately owned Northern hardwood forests in the U.S. are managed appropriately, primarily due to a lack of landowner knowledge. An appropriate thinning will concentrate on keeping the growth on the finest trees, while removing poor quality trees containing defects such as the two in this photo showing cankers caused by one of the Nectria fungi species that develop target cankers that often result in the death of the tree over time. This is but one component in the complex system of managing these trees.  When appropriate decisions are made during these processes, landowners will realize high satisfaction in the various values associated with land ownership, including the finances over time.